The challenges are more or less the same as the ones in Guitar Hero 5 and Band Hero. The only difference is that each song has two or more challenges for each instrument instead of just one challenge for one instrument. Also instead of completing a challenge at a certain level and unlocking content, items are unlocked depending on the overall total of stars which are collected by the player. Each song that has all four instrument tracks has thirty-six available stars to collect.
The power challenges is a challenge that is only playable by unlocking powers in the Quest Mode. The power challenge doesn't have an objective such as a high score or note streak but instead allows the player to choose two out of all eight powers and play a song. The power challenges also allows the player to collect more stars than an average challenge. The most stars which can be collected from this type of challenge is twenty to twenty-two. Also power challenges can only be played by one person and not a band.